Carrying out international capacity cooperation not only meets the requirements of relevant countries to promote industrialization, but also can promote the optimization and upgrading of China's industrial structure. It is an important way to promote the improvement of manufacturing quality and efficiency under the new normal of our economy. As a groundbreaking attempt, there is no ready-made experience to advance the strategy, and there is no fixed model to refer to. We should strive for stability while progressing, overcome the eagerness to achieve success, and avoid falling into the misunderstanding of "four emphasis and four lightness."
I. Focusing on the project and not planning
International production capacity cooperation takes project construction as the starting point, and through cooperation in the construction of overseas industrial parks and industrial clusters, China's advantageous production capacity and the needs of partner countries are effectively combined. The project itself is very important and receives the most attention, but it often causes all parties involved in capacity cooperation to have such a "misunderstanding": carrying out international capacity cooperation is project construction and project investment, as long as several "big projects", "Big projects" can be done once and for all. Obviously, this mode of thinking does not break through the theoretical framework of "Keynesianism". Promoting international capacity cooperation through project construction is more important in order to enhance the level of Chinese-funded enterprises participating in international competition and enhance the influence of Chinese capital and manufacturing technology in the world. If there is a lack of supporting facilities and realistic planning, even if the project is won, it will be very difficult to open up a new situation.
Compared with the abundant project construction reserves, some local plans are slightly thinner in content and have not been accurately designed in terms of positioning. There is a tendency to compete for positioning and grab projects. In order to highlight the importance of the region in cooperating with international capacity cooperation, "starting point", "bridgehead" and "strategic fulcrum" are used by many provinces to describe their positioning. The scramble for positioning is more based on the consideration of raising awareness, and more for the promotion of obtaining project construction resources in the future. There is no solid mechanism, path support, and accurate analysis of its own advantages and disadvantages. It is a strategic issue that provinces should focus on linking the province's resources with the industrial structure, market capacity, and industrial upgrading trends of cooperating countries and improving regional industrial supporting capabilities.
Suggestion: Make overall planning and coordination, and do a good job of planning connection and evaluation. Plan scientifically and reasonably, and do a good job in the docking and evaluation of central and local level planning. The first is to take advantage of the favorable opportunity of the joint development of the national development and reform system to strengthen the central government's business guidance on planning. The specific way can be to organize planning preparation lectures, and conduct system-wide business training on a regular basis. The second is to regularly evaluate and feedback on the implementation of local planning. On the one hand, it learns local good experience and practices and actively promotes it; on the other hand, it monitors the implementation of the plan to strengthen the seriousness and binding of the plan.
Second, heavy equipment, light talent
Equipment and talents are the two factors for the upgrading of the manufacturing industry. The improvement of manufacturing efficiency through international capacity cooperation is also inseparable from the equipment and talents. However, in practice, equipment is often visible and tangible. Enterprises purchase heavy equipment and replace new machines without losing money. Talent training itself has the characteristics of long cycle, slow effect and great difficulty. When investment in skilled talent is needed, many enterprises tighten their pockets. 万人（ 2014年数据），不到美国的1/3 ，“重装备，轻人才”的倾向较为明显。 Over the years, fixed-asset investment most closely linked to equipment has maintained double-digit growth, but only about 160,000 young engineers “suitable for globalization requirements” ( 2014 data), less than one-third of the US, The tendency of "emphasizing equipment and neglecting talent" is more obvious.
At present, two types of talents are needed to carry out international capacity cooperation: First, senior skilled workers with solid manufacturing skills. The second is the need for a large number of compound talents who understand foreign languages, diplomacy, law, and management. However, there are talent shortcomings in both areas in China. The first is the shortage of high-level skilled workers. Enterprises "have meters but no clever women." 左右，而我国只占4% ，高级技术工人短缺近60万人。 The data shows that currently high-skilled workers in developed countries account for about 35% of the total skills, while China only accounts for 4% , and there is a shortage of nearly 600,000 high-skilled workers. ，世界顶级跨国公司的跨国经营指数一般在50%以上。 Second, due to the lack of complex talents, it is difficult for enterprises to adapt to foreign investment environments and competition in international markets. The transnational operating index of Chinese enterprises is only 20% , and the transnational operating index of the world's top multinational companies is generally above 50% .
Suggestions: First, optimize the discipline setting of colleges and universities, cultivate all kinds of talents urgently needed for the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry, and train a group of talents and engineers in science and engineering. The second is to change the talent training orientation of "emphasizing education and neglecting skills", improve resource support for higher vocational and technical colleges, and enhance the status of higher vocational and technical colleges in the current college system. The third is to set up an "international capacity cooperation" scholarship. Increase the number of students sent abroad, focusing on training small-language talents, engineering and technical talents, financial talents, and political and legal talents. The fourth is to strengthen joint schooling with production capacity cooperating countries, promote the "going out" and "introduction" of high-quality higher education, and train the international talents needed for complex international production capacity cooperation as soon as possible.
Third, emphasis on construction and light environmental protection
The output capacity is concentrated in the fields of building materials, steel, and equipment manufacturing. These industries have two characteristics. One is the strong demand from the cooperating countries. There is a problem of insufficient capacity in these industries. Second, the industry can quickly bring benefits. As far as the partner countries are concerned, "the first project is worth two thousand dollars." The rapid income is easy for both parties to focus on "income generation" in the early stage, pay more attention to the construction of the project, and pay less attention to environmental protection. There is no time to comprehensively consider factors such as energy consumption and environmental protection, and thus enter the "heavy construction" , Light environmental protection ".
At present, green and ecology have become the concept and consensus of global manufacturing development. Ignoring and violating this concept will definitely be incompatible with the mainstream of manufacturing development. In addition, in the process of project construction, environmental and ecological standards often become the trigger for intensifying contradictions and become an excuse for international anti-China forces to attack China's production capacity. In the context of ecological consensus that has reached a global consensus, the promotion of international production capacity cooperation cannot also ignore environmental protection factors, and cannot sacrifice the long-term interests and ecological environment of the partner countries. Otherwise, it will not be able to achieve the goal of "forcing companies to conduct green production and accelerating transformation and upgrading through international production capacity cooperation". It will also give people external control, leaving the impression of "predatory development" and "made in China" "" Chinese brands "will bring intangible losses.
Suggestions: First, design and review strictly in accordance with environmental protection specifications, develop environmental protection facilities and project construction simultaneously, and strengthen testing and feedback during project implementation to continuously improve and improve. 组织沟通，耐心解释介绍在环保方面采取的积极措施，避免项目建设受到普通民众的误解。 The second is to communicate more with local environmental NGOs and explain patiently the positive measures taken in environmental protection to avoid misunderstanding of the project by ordinary people. The third is to establish a domestic traceability mechanism for corporate environmental protection subjects. When an enterprise goes global, its behavior is a commercial one, but it ultimately represents and reflects the image of the country. Therefore, it is recommended to strengthen the domestic accountability mechanism for environmental protection responsibilities. For those who have serious consequences in foreign countries due to excessive emissions and illegal decision-making regardless of the ecological environment, they must be held accountable.
Fourth, emphasis on income and risk
Infrastructure construction is an important carrier for promoting international capacity cooperation. Since it is project construction, the first consideration is naturally the project's benefits, which is also in line with the laws of the market economy, and there is nothing wrong with it. However, benefits and risks are always accompanied by each other. The benefits are often visible and people are willing to see the benefits. The risks are just the opposite. They are not easy to find and people are not willing to actively face risks. Such thinking habits and formulas may give rise to a tendency of "heavy returns and light risks".
The development levels of the countries along the route are uneven, the interests of each country are different, and the relationship between the countries is complicated. There are geopolitical risks and investment security risks. From a geopolitical point of view, the big powers competition has complicated the regional situation. The United States and Japan have deliberately crowded out China ’s high-quality production capacity. The cooperating countries have more or less doubts about China ’s output capacity. They are worried that the backward capacity is spatially simple Pan. From the perspective of investment security, the cooperating countries are wide-ranging, and the issues of consistency, perfection, and continuity of laws and regulations cannot be ignored. Issues such as race, ethnicity, and religion are intertwined and intertwined. While seriously affecting social stability, it is also likely to offset their enthusiasm for participating in capacity-building cooperation.
Suggestions: First, it is necessary to do a good risk assessment, establish a set of acceptable, interactive, complementary, and operable risk prevention mechanisms, and accelerate the preparation of the "Guidelines for Capacity Cooperation Countries". Second, adhering to the principle of "co-construction", we can control differences through co-construction and reduce interference. For example, for the United States and Japan, as far as possible, communicate with their domestic consortiums and large companies to reduce the confrontation of interests and make them develop in a direction that does not at least hinder or hinder project construction. The third is to adhere to the "share" principle. Cooperate to develop resources, improve the efficiency of in-situ processing and transformation, and help partner countries improve their deep processing capabilities of resources, and ultimately realize revenue sharing and risk sharing.