Resource-based cities, as China's important energy resources strategic guarantee base, are an important support for the sustained and healthy development of the national economy. However, with the adjustment of China's economic structure, resource-based cities have gradually lost their original advantages, and resource problems, environmental problems, economic problems, and social problems have followed. How to transform them has become a top priority for local governments. Therefore, accelerating the economic transformation and development and finding continuity and alternative industries are of great practical significance for resource-based cities, especially resource-based cities, to change their state of over-reliance on resources and energy and achieve sustainable economic and social development.
I. Main bottlenecks facing sustainable development of China's resource-based cities
A resource-based city refers to an industrial city where the mining and processing of natural resources such as minerals and forests are the leading industries in the region. China's resource-based cities have risen and grown with the development of industry, especially heavy industry. 个资源型城市约占我国城市数量的30% ，其矿产资源开发的增加值约占全部工业增加值的25% ，高出全国平均水平一倍左右。 The 262 resource-based cities defined by the State Council for the first time account for about 30% of the number of cities in China, and the added value of mineral resource development accounts for about 25% of the total industrial added value, which is about twice the national average.
Resource-based cities provide energy and raw material support for the country's economic construction and development, provide a large number of employment opportunities for society, promote urbanization and construction, and promote regional economic development, and have made significant contributions to China's economic development. ）矿竭城衰趋势。 However, after just a few decades of development, China's resource-based cities are generally facing some common bottlenecks, and sustainable development has encountered unprecedented challenges, which are mainly manifested in: ( 1 ) the trend of mining exhaustion. The urban economy relies too much on the support of resources and resource-based leading industries. As the total amount of resources decreases, industrial benefits show a downward trend. Once the resources are depleted, the mine exhaustion will decline. ）产业结构单一。 ( 2 ) Single industrial structure. ～ 70% ，甚至80%以上。 Among the three major industries, the proportion of the secondary industry is relatively large, most of which are 60% to 70% , or even more than 80% . The technological content and added value of products are generally low. The resource-based industry has shrunk, and the ability to continue to replace the industry is insufficient. ）就业问题突出。 ( 3 ) The employment problem is prominent. Due to the unbalanced industrial structure, the development of the tertiary industry is lagging, the ability to absorb labor is limited, the employment channels are single, the unemployment rate is rising, and the income of residents is falling. ）环境问题严重。 ( 4 ) Serious environmental problems. The three wastes (waste water, waste gas, waste residue) generated in the mining production process have a strong destructive power on the ecological environment such as land, water and the atmosphere, and the problems of environmental pollution and ecological damage are serious. ）综合竞争力弱。 ( 5 ) Weak comprehensive competitiveness. Resource-based cities have relatively weak overall competitiveness due to many problems such as insufficient backup resources, backward overall technology, weak infrastructure, and extensive management. ）锁定效应明显。 ( 6 ) The locking effect is obvious. This is mainly reflected in the fact that the structure of the resource industry is difficult to upgrade along with the development of policies, technologies, and markets, including technology locks, structure locks, function locks, and cognitive locks. The endogenous power for transformation and development is insufficient.
Second, policy dividends help transform and upgrade resource-based cities
The transformation and upgrading of resource-based cities is of great significance to the sustainable development of China's regional economy. In response to the transformation of resource-based cities, China has successively issued a number of important documents and policies. Since then, governments at all levels have increased their policy support for the transformation and development of resource-based cities and have achieved significant results. 年，辽宁省阜新市被确定为全国首个资源枯竭型城市经济转型试点市。 In 2001 , Fuxin City, Liaoning Province was identified as the country's first resource-exhausted city economic transformation pilot city. 年11月，十六大报告提出“支持以资源开采为主的城市和地区发展接续产业”。 In November 2002, the report of the 16th National Congress of the Communist Party of China proposed "supporting the development of continual industries in cities and regions that are mainly resource-mining." 年10月，中共中央、国务院《关于实施东北地区等老工业基地振兴战略的若干意见》正式下发，明确提出对东北地区资源型城市转型的推动支持。 In October 2003, the "Central Opinions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of China and the State Council on the Implementation of Revitalization Strategies of Old Industrial Bases in the Northeast Region" was officially issued, which explicitly put forward support for the transformation of resource-based cities in the Northeast. 年的《东北老工业基地振兴规划》中，把加快推进资源枯竭型城市转型作为促进东北振兴的重大举措之一，指明了资源型城市可持续发展目标、方向和举措。 In the 2007 "Northeast Old Industrial Base Revitalization Plan", accelerating the transformation of resource-exhausted cities as one of the major measures to promote the revitalization of Northeast China specified the goals, directions, and measures for the sustainable development of resource-based cities. The report of the 17th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly states that it is necessary to help economically transform regions with resource exhaustion. 年确定首批12个资源枯竭型城市，此后又分别于2009年和2012年确定第二批32个、第三批25个资源枯竭型城市。 In the same year, the State Council issued "Several Opinions on Promoting the Sustainable Development of Resource-Based Cities," and for the first time proposed a series of policies such as establishing a resource development compensation mechanism and a recession industry assistance mechanism, increasing fiscal generality and special transfer payments. The first 12 resource-exhausted cities were identified in 2008 , and the second batch of 32 and the third 25 resource-exhausted cities were identified in 2009 and 2012 , respectively. 年国务院出台的《全国资源型城市可持续发展规划（ 2013-2020年）》，首次在全国界定了262个资源型城市，其中69个为资源枯竭型城市，并将资源型城市分为成长型、成熟型、衰退型和再生型四种，明确不同类型城市发展方向和重点任务。 The National Resource-based City Sustainable Development Plan ( 2013-2020 ) issued by the State Council in 2013 defined for the first time 262 resource-based cities across the country, of which 69 were resource-exhausted cities and divided resource-based cities into growth There are four types of urban development: mature, mature, declining, and regenerative. The development direction and key tasks of different types of cities are clear. 月，国家发展和改革委员会出台《关于加强分类引导培育资源型城市转型发展新动能的指导意见》。 In January this year, the National Development and Reform Commission issued the "Guiding Opinions on Strengthening Classification and Guiding Cultivation of New Motive Forces for the Transformation and Development of Resource-based Cities." The State Administration of Taxation and the Ministry of Land and Resources have also recently issued a Announcement on Several Issues Concerning the Implementation of Preferential Policies for Resource Tax Reform. Many policy bonuses will help China's resource-based cities to transform and upgrade.
3. Countermeasures to promote the transformation and development of China's resource-based cities
、市场与政府政策协调发挥作用。 1. Market and government policy play a role. The economic transformation of resource-based cities needs to give full play to the role of the market, and it is also inseparable from government policy support and support. In order to solve the economic, social and environmental contradictions accumulated in the long-term development of resources, we must continue to study the resource development compensation mechanism and the recession industry assistance mechanism from the perspective of coordinated economic and social development, in order to fundamentally solve the problem of economic transformation of resource-based cities. Promote the sustainable development of cities.
、多渠道筹集资金，拓宽资金渠道。 2. Raise funds through multiple channels and broaden funding channels. During the transformation period of resource-based cities, a large amount of capital investment is needed to help the local government solve problems such as closing enterprises, resettlement of employees, and social security. Therefore, the state must take measures in terms of financial resources and policies to raise funds for transformation in an all-round, multi-level, multi-mode, and multi-channel manner. Specific preferential policies can be land concessions, financing concessions and tax system concessions, etc., in order to broaden funding channels.
、不断调整产业结构。 3. Constantly adjust the industrial structure. The first is to gradually reduce the proportion of resource-based industries in the urban economy, and to actively withdraw from those industries that have high costs, severe environmental pollution and no regional comparative advantage; the second is to transform traditional industries, that is, to actively adopt advanced technologies for traditional resource industries that still have competitive advantages. Technology transformation and upgrading; the third is to stretch the resource-based industry chain and develop upstream and downstream industries around the main industry to form a diversified industry; the fourth is to implant emerging industries and develop outside the resource-based industry with both international market prospects and local comparisons Advantaged emerging industries.
、不断改善投资环境。 4. Continuously improve the investment environment. The economic transformation of resource-based cities must be planned from a high starting point, strengthen environmental improvement, ecological protection, infrastructure construction and optimization of urban functions and image. Fiscal and taxation policies should be used to support ecological environment governance, social security, and infrastructure construction in resource-based cities in order to improve the investment environment and to attract foreign investment. The introduction of foreign capital is not only capital, but more importantly the advanced technology, management and concepts introduced at the same time, as well as the effect of increasing employment, which is crucial for the transformation and development of resource-based cities.
、优化人才培养体系。 5. Optimize the talent training system. Optimize talent training, widely attract high-level R & D teams and high-level professional talents, encourage various types of talents to be innovative and entrepreneurial in production and scientific research, activate core elements of scientific and technological innovation, allow creative intellectual activities to fully play a role, and implement technical innovation strategies Inject new vitality. At the same time, strengthen vocational skills training for transferred and laid-off workers and migrant workers, and improve the technical knowledge level of the labor market to meet the needs of urban development.