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Development Mode of Modern Agriculture in Developed Countries and Its Enlightenment to China
Source: Economic Forecast Department of: Zhu Min Time: 2018-03-28

Agricultural modernization is the foundation and support of national modernization, and it is both a new opportunity and a new challenge to the development of "agriculture, rural areas and farmers". The content of agricultural modernization is gradually enriched with economic and social development. At present, agricultural modernization includes not only the mechanization, water conservancy, and electrification of agricultural production processes, but also the production conditions, production technology, production standards, production organization, and management systems. The process of agricultural modernization is a process of improving the agricultural industrial system, infrastructure system, management system, quality assurance system, and resource protection system. It is also a process of promoting institutional and technological innovation, breaking through technological constraints, eliminating natural risks, reducing resource pressure, and eliminating the environment. The process of pollution. China's agricultural modernization has similarities to other countries (such as the United States and Canada with abundant agricultural resource endowments, Japan, Israel, and the Netherlands with insufficient agricultural resource endowments, and France and Germany with agricultural resource endowments in between), but also has its own Characteristics. To fully promote the modernization of agriculture with Chinese characteristics, we need to learn from international experience and also need independent innovation.

1. Foreign modern agricultural development models

What kind of starting method a country uses to realize agricultural modernization is generally determined mainly by the level of land, labor, and industrialization at that time. Countries with fewer people and more land should first reform their production tools and develop mechanization to save labor. Countries with more people and less land should start with more labor and make full use of land to increase yield. At present, there are three main modes of modern agricultural development abroad, namely the scale, mechanization, and high-tech model represented by the United States, the resource-saving and capital technology-intensive models represented by countries such as Japan and Israel, and A complex model of intensive production and mechanical technology represented by France and the Netherlands. 公顷以上的国家走的是机械技术型;劳均土地330公顷的国家,走的是生物技术—机械技术交错型;而劳均土地不足3公顷的国家,走的是生物技术型。 American economist Vernon Latan used empirical data to prove the above model division, that is, countries with more than 30 hectares of land per labor are mechanical technology; countries with 3 to 30 hectares of labor are biological Technology-mechanical technology is staggered; while countries with less than 3 hectares of land per laborer are of biotechnology type.

、以美国为代表的规模型、机械化、高技术模式 1. Large-scale, mechanized, high-tech model represented by the United States

The United States is rich in agricultural resources, with many people and few people, and has large farms. 世纪70年代完成了从传统农业向现代农业的转变。 It is generally believed that the United States completed the transformation from traditional agriculture to modern agriculture from around the World War II to the 1970s . This transformation process can be subdivided into three periods: ① agricultural mechanization period. 世纪30年代,拖拉机耕地已在美国普及。 In the 1930s, tractor farmland became widespread in the United States. 年,美国的小麦、玉米等主要农业作物的耕、播、收割、脱粒、清洗已达100%的机械化。 By 1959 , the cultivation, sowing, harvesting, threshing, and cleaning of major agricultural crops such as wheat and corn in the United States had reached 100% mechanization. Since then, to meet the market demand for the diversification and large-scale development of family farms, small and multi-functional multi-variety agricultural machines and large-powered, highly automated large-scale agricultural machines have been continuously introduced. ② Agricultural chemicalization period, including the large-scale use of chemical fertilizers, pesticides (herbicides, pesticides) and soil improvers. After World War II, in order to increase agricultural output, the use of fertilizers in American agriculture increased dramatically. At the same time, in order to improve the pH of the soil and the adverse effects of long-term application of chemical fertilizers, the United States has also increased the amount of soil modifiers year by year. 年起,除草剂的使用迅速增加,现已超过杀虫剂。 The use of herbicides has increased rapidly since 1960 and now exceeds pesticides. ③ The period of improved agricultural breeding. 世纪70年代前后,美国为适应不同地区气候和土质要求,培育出许多杂交品种,并开始利用遗传生物工程方法,核辐射技术和航天工程技术,改造优化种子的遗传基因,使农产品产量与品质大幅度提高。 Around the 1970s , the United States cultivated many hybrid varieties in order to adapt to the climate and soil requirements of different regions, and began to use genetic bioengineering methods, nuclear radiation technology and aerospace engineering technology to transform and optimize the genetic genes of seeds, so that the yield and quality of agricultural products substantial improvement. Many fine breeds of livestock and poultry have also been cultivated, and industrialized and large-scale breeding has been implemented. After undergoing agricultural modernization in the above three stages, American agriculture has not stopped there. With the application of computer technology and biotechnology, "precision agriculture" and "gene agriculture" have appeared one after another. In particular, many mega-farms have moved towards "computer-integrated adaptive production", that is, integrating market information, production parameter information (climate, soil, seeds, agricultural machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, energy, etc.), capital, labor information, etc., and selecting The best planting plan, during the growth process, according to the local microclimate changes, adaptive water spraying, fertilization, and pesticide application are carried out. Agricultural production is more industrialized and automated, so that the modernization level of American agriculture is constantly improved and always At the forefront of the world.

、以欧洲为代表的生产集约加机械技术的复合型模式 2.Composite model of intensive production and mechanical technology represented by Europe

世纪50年代开始,欧洲以提高农业生产率为目标,加快了农业现代化的进程。 Since the 1950s , Europe has accelerated the process of agricultural modernization with the goal of increasing agricultural productivity. 公顷以下的农场占总数的81%France is the most developed country in Europe. Its agricultural operations are mainly small and medium-sized farms, of which 81% are farms with an area of less than 80 hectares. On this basis, France has achieved agricultural modernization mainly through the specialization and integration of agricultural production. There are three types of agricultural specialization in France: regional specialization, farm specialization, and job specialization. Regional specialization is the full use of natural conditions and agricultural resources. Concentrate different crops, livestock and poultry into the most suitable areas to form a specialized agricultural production base; farm specialization is a farm that specializes in the production of a type of agricultural products; operation specialization is the farming, harvesting, transportation, and Supply and so on, to the professional enterprises outside the farm to complete, so that the farm from self-sufficient production to commercial production. In terms of agricultural integration, France also has two forms of vertical integration and horizontal integration. Vertical integration is a comprehensive enterprise that combines agricultural capital with industrial and commercial capital, and integrates production, supply, and sales. Its business scope is very wide, and most of the organizational leaders are some large companies or groups. Horizontal integration is the organization of various types of agriculture. Cooperatives are far looser in organizational form than vertically integrated agricultural enterprise groups. Because of their flexibility and effectiveness, coupled with voluntary organization and freedom to retire, cooperatives are welcomed by French farmers. At the same time, with its developed industrial base, France has actively promoted the process of agricultural mechanization and automation, greatly improving agricultural production efficiency.

年制订新的“农业法”,采取了加强政府支持,改善农业基础设施,提高农产品价格,大力推进农业机械化,实行集约经营等措施,扭转了长期以来农业衰退的局面,大幅度提高了农业的劳动生产率和单位面积产量,到20世纪60年代基本实现了农业现代化。 After the Second World War, the United Kingdom formulated a new "Agricultural Law" in 1947 , adopted measures to strengthen government support, improve agricultural infrastructure, raise agricultural product prices, vigorously promote agricultural mechanization, and implemented intensive management. The recession has greatly improved agricultural labor productivity and unit area output, and agricultural modernization was basically achieved by the 1960s. At present, the agricultural mechanization in Britain has reached a very high level, and the agricultural machinery is complete. From farming to harvesting and entering the warehouse, each program has corresponding machinery. The farms that grow vegetables and the farms that raise pigs and chickens have achieved mechanization. ),其经营规模之大和机械化、集约化、专业化程度之高,在世界上处于领先水平。 In particular, the livestock industry, which occupies an important position in British agriculture (its output value accounts for about two- thirds of the total agricultural output value), has a large scale of operation and a high degree of mechanization, intensiveness, and professionalism, and is at the leading level in the world. Facility agriculture in the Netherlands is a model of modern agriculture in Europe. After the end of the Second World War, after decades of exploration, the Netherlands has embarked on a modern agricultural road that suits the characteristics of its national conditions, making agriculture itself a market-competitive industry, and agricultural importers have become exporters. 世纪60年代起,荷兰政府以节约土地、提高土地生产率为目标调整农业结构和生产布局,使农业生产向产业化、集约化和机械化发展。 Since the 1960s , the Dutch government has adjusted agricultural structure and production layout with the goal of saving land and increasing land productivity, so that agricultural production will develop into industrialization, intensification and mechanization. Among them, greenhouse agriculture is the most distinctive agricultural industry in the Netherlands, and it is a world leader. Greenhouse products can be produced, managed, and sold in accordance with industrial production methods, so they are also called "factory agriculture". 亿平方米,占全世界玻璃温室面积的1/4 ,主要种植鲜花和蔬菜,具有自动化程度和生产水平高,集约化、规模化、专业化生产,规范有序的市场经营等特点。 At present, the construction area of the greenhouse in the Netherlands is 1.1 billion square meters, accounting for 1/4 of the world's glass greenhouse area. It mainly grows flowers and vegetables, has a high degree of automation and high production level, intensive, large-scale, professional production, standardized and orderly. Market management and other characteristics. 用于出口,其中温室蔬菜占本国蔬菜的外销比例高达86% ,同时荷兰也是世界上四大蔬菜种子出口国之一。 50% -90% of the greenhouse products in the Netherlands are used for export. Among them, greenhouse vegetables account for 86% of the country's vegetable exports. At the same time, the Netherlands is also one of the world's four largest vegetable seed exporters. Like many European countries, the size of family farms in the Netherlands is generally small, but there are many types of agricultural cooperatives, which are broadly divided into credit cooperatives, supply cooperatives, agricultural product processing cooperatives, sales cooperatives, service cooperatives, etc., and provide members (members) with Pre-, mid- and post-production services have played a key role in improving the competitiveness of Dutch agriculture's markets.

、以日本、以色列为代表的资源节约和资本、技术密集型模式 3. Resource saving and capital and technology-intensive models represented by Japan and Israel

Countries such as Japan, South Korea, and Israel, due to the large population and small land, extremely scarce agricultural resources, and high land tensions, rely mainly on technological innovation and large capital investment to improve the efficiency of the use of limited resources and achieve agricultural modernization. One of the important characteristics of Japan's agriculture is the adoption of a comprehensive cooperative land-saving model, in which the agricultural cooperatives form a distributed labor force to form intensive labor management. The role of the agricultural cooperatives is world-renowned. 年日本进行了土地改革和农协重组,大力推进旨在迅速提高产量的水利化、化肥化、良种化等措施,使日本农业装备水平大为提高,新经营体制得到确立。 In 1947 , Japan carried out agrarian reform and reorganization of agricultural cooperatives, vigorously promoted measures to rapidly increase output, such as water conservancy, chemical fertilizers, and improved seeding, which greatly improved the level of Japanese agricultural equipment and established a new management system. 年日本制定的《农业基本法》,进一步体现了日本农业现代化道路的选择。 The "Basic Agricultural Law" enacted by Japan in 1961 further reflects the choice of Japan's agricultural modernization path. With regard to goal setting, improving agricultural labor productivity and narrowing the income gap between workers and peasants are the two major goals of agricultural modernization. In terms of path selection, it is expected that through the large-scale transfer of agricultural labor force and vigorously promoting the agricultural technology revolution with mechanization as the main body, in order to form independent operating farmers with ever-increasing business scales, the above goals will be finally achieved. The government has provided substantial financial support for the promotion of agricultural modernization. 世纪70年代初期,农业现代化的两大目标已基本实现:包括水稻在内的农业机械化程度达到90%以上,以机械化为中心的水利、良种和栽培技术达到较高水平,稻谷的劳动生产率提高了近两倍,农户家庭收入与城镇职工家庭收入基本持平。 Generally, by the early 1970s , the two major goals of agricultural modernization had been basically achieved: the degree of agricultural mechanization, including rice, reached more than 90% , water conservancy, improved seeds, and cultivation techniques centered on mechanization reached a higher level, and the labor of rice Productivity has increased by almost two times, and the income of rural households has been basically the same as that of urban workers. But at the same time, problems such as declining self-sufficiency in food and food, excessive financial subsidies, and excessive government intervention have emerged.7月通过新的农业基本法,以确保食品稳定供给、发挥农业多功能性、强调农业可持续发展为目标,开始了新一轮的农业现代化进程。 In response, the Japanese Parliament passed a new basic agricultural law in July 1999 , with the goal of ensuring a stable supply of food, giving full play to agricultural multifunctionality, and emphasizing sustainable agricultural development, and began a new round of agricultural modernization.

Lessons from the experience of developed countries for China

Since World War II, developed countries have successively achieved agricultural modernization. Replacing manual labor with modern machinery, transforming and developing agriculture with modern science and technology, and operating and managing agriculture with modern economic management science have greatly improved the level of specialization, intensification, and marketization of agriculture, and fundamental changes have taken place in the face of agriculture and the countryside. . Because the natural and economic conditions of different countries are different, the agricultural development methods also have their own characteristics, which has certain reference significance for China's agricultural development.

、要从国情出发探索建设农业现代化的道路 1. Exploring the road of agricultural modernization based on national conditions

From the process of agricultural modernization abroad, we can see that there is no fixed pattern for agricultural modernization. What kind of approach a country takes towards agricultural modernization is determined by its objective resource conditions and historical background, and it is impossible to completely copy or imitate the models of other countries. Generally speaking, in countries with early industrialization, abundant land resources, and relatively lack of labor, the beginning of agricultural modernization often starts with the reform of production tools and technologies and follows the path of capital intensive or technology intensive. For example, in the United States, it is mainly labor-saving, adopting state-owned, regionally-distributed farms or production bases, making full use of agricultural machinery and improved seed technologies to form large-scale and industrialized operations. Due to its scarce land resources and harsh natural environmental conditions, Israel has focused on research on water-saving agricultural science and technology, forming its characteristics of technology-intensive agriculture. Countries with more people and less land use labor intensification as a starting point for agricultural modernization. First, find ways to save land resources and make full use of labor. Focus on the use of biotechnology, intensive farming, and intensive management to increase yields. For example, the Netherlands pays attention to the development of facility agriculture and the "greenhouse revolution". High-yielding family farms and perfect social service networks complement each other, making it a world agricultural power. Japan is an island country. The development of agriculture has mainly adopted a comprehensive land-saving model of co-operation, that is, the intensive management of farmer cooperatives by dispersing farmers. The construction of modern agriculture in our country must also proceed from the national conditions and take the road of agricultural modernization with Chinese characteristics.

、要制订和实施切实有效的农业支持和保护政策 2. Formulate and implement effective agricultural support and protection policies

Agricultural support and protection policies are the sum of various government interventions to promote agricultural development. Its specific forms are various, such as direct income support for farmers, support for agricultural product prices, encouraging agricultural exports, and restricting agricultural product imports; implementing financial and financial support and agricultural disaster insurance; increasing investment in agriculture, and strengthening agricultural research and technology promotion , Supporting agricultural and rural infrastructure construction, protecting agricultural resources and the environment. In the process of agricultural modernization, the United States, the European Union and other countries have established relatively sound agricultural support and protection policies. After industrialization, Japan and South Korea also implemented the policy of industrial back-feeding agriculture, which only greatly improved the level of agricultural modernization. It can be said that the strong support and protection of the government is an indispensable and important factor in the agricultural modernization process in developed countries. 《农业协定》生效之后,尽管主要市场经济国家对农业的支持方式发生了某些变化,但对农业的支持和保护力度不但在总体上没有减小,许多国家还有所增加。 After the entry into force of the WTO's Agricultural Agreement, although some changes have taken place in the support methods for agriculture in major market economy countries, not only have the overall support and protection for agriculture not diminished, many countries have also increased. 年美国和欧盟的国内支持量分别达到其农业产值的50%60% ,日本更是高达76.7%In 2001 , the domestic support of the United States and the European Union reached 50% and 60% of its agricultural output value, and Japan's as high as 76.7% . 美元左右是开始实行农业保护的最佳时机。 It is generally believed that a per capita GDP of around $ 1,000 is the best time to begin agricultural protection. The basic conditions for establishing a national agricultural support and protection system with greater protection and support efficiency as soon as possible, and accelerating China's agricultural modernization process have been established as soon as possible.

、要加大人力资本投入,提高农业劳动者素质 3. Increase human capital investment and improve the quality of agricultural workers

The production, operation and management of modern agriculture need to possess a variety of knowledge and skills in agronomy, mechanics, management, and informatics. It is also known as a knowledge-intensive and technology-intensive industry. Therefore, high-quality agricultural workers are an indispensable condition for building modern agriculture. Education is the most important form of human capital investment. All developed countries attach great importance to agricultural education and have a sound agricultural education system. 是大学毕业生。 85% of Danish farmers are college graduates. The children of farmers with inheritance rights in France, after receiving basic education, will have to go to the agricultural school for another five years, and after three years of apprenticeship, they will be eligible to engage in agricultural business after passing the examination. China's rural labor resources are abundant, but the quality is low. This is a problem that must be solved in the process of building modern agriculture.

、要搞好生态环境保护工作,促进现代农业的可持续发展 4. Do a good job of ecological environmental protection and promote the sustainable development of modern agriculture

In this regard, many developed countries, including the United States, have taken a detour. For example, soil degradation, environmental pollution, and soil and water loss caused by heavy use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides. European environmental consciousness is strong, measures are taken early, and the situation is relatively better. At present, although China attaches great importance to the construction and protection of the production environment, and has adopted major measures such as returning farmland to forests, on the whole, China's environmental protection level is still low, and the national environmental awareness has not yet been formed. It was severely damaged, soil and water loss was severe, and desertification and desertification were increasing. To this end, we must learn from European experience, place environmental protection in a prominent position, resolutely stop production and development models at the expense of the environment, further strengthen ecological construction, strive to improve the ecological environment and agricultural production conditions, and vigorously develop ecological agriculture. And organic agriculture, and strive to effectively curb the deterioration of China's ecological environment in a short period of time, and promote sustainable agricultural development.