世纪海上丝绸之路经济带”，两者合称“一带一路”。 The "Silk Road Economic Belt" and the " 21st Century Maritime Silk Road Economic Belt" are collectively referred to as the "Belt and Road". 年多来，我国政府大力推动“一带一路”倡议的布局与推进，签署多个合作框架协议，推动项目建设，完善政策措施，发挥平台作用；我国企业也积极参与，陆续实现了多个重大转变。 For more than three years, the Chinese government has vigorously promoted the layout and promotion of the “Belt and Road” initiative, signed multiple cooperation framework agreements, promoted project construction, improved policies and measures, and played a platform role; Chinese enterprises have also actively participated and successively achieved a number of major change. Specific to oil and gas cooperation, we have realized the transformation from heavy resources and heavy upstream to the cooperation of the entire industry chain, from a single branch on land to two wings flying together, from state-owned enterprises to state-owned enterprises and private enterprises to jointly participate in the transformation. Oil and gas cooperation from first to important First-level transformation, the five major transformations from a Chinese solo to a choir of countries along the route. It can be seen that the cooperation between China and the countries along the “Belt and Road” is changing from the cooperation of a single project to the direction of regional economic and trade cooperation and industrial integration. The government's idea of setting up a stage and the company's opera are more clear. The industrial integration of oil and gas in China and the countries along the “Belt and Road” will enter a new stage of development.
(1) Transition from a single branch on the land to two wings flying together
世纪海上丝绸之路”是“一带一路”建设的两翼。 The "Silk Road Economic Belt" and the " 21st Century Maritime Silk Road" are the two wings of the "Belt and Road" construction. The "Belt" is mainly land, and the "Belt" is mainly by sea. Prior to the “Belt and Road” initiative, the construction of oil and gas pipelines mainly represented the onshore breakthroughs represented by the construction of oil and gas pipelines in Central Asia and China-Russia oil pipelines, which introduced oil and gas resources in Central Asia and Russian oil resources into China. 线、中俄天然气东线进入实施阶段。 However, since the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative, China Unicom, an onshore channel, has continued to advance, and the Central Asian D line and the Sino-Russian natural gas east line have entered the implementation stage. While onshore oil and gas cooperation continues to deepen and accelerate, Hailu's cooperation with key ports as the starting point has continued to advance, including participation in the construction of overseas port projects, obtaining overseas port management rights, and cooperating with the host country. These ports tightly restrict the throats of important maritime routes and are also important pivots for global oil supply channels. The construction of ports along the line has further promoted the cooperation between China's oil and gas industry and resource countries and neighboring countries. The construction of the maritime channel not only strengthens the stability of the links between the Middle East and African resources and China and the Asian oil and gas markets, but also promotes the stability of the economic and trade links between China and the countries along the route and extends to Europe, thereby inspiring the common concerns of interested countries and maintaining the South China Sea The access roads are safe.
(2) Change from focusing on resources and upstream to cooperation in the entire industry chain
The countries along the “Belt and Road” have concentrated Russia, Central Asian countries, and important oil and gas resource countries in the Middle East. ，产量占世界30%以上；俄罗斯和中亚地区天然气剩余探明储量占世界60% ，产量占世界34%以上。 Among them, the remaining proven oil reserves in the Middle East accounted for 48% of the world's output, accounting for more than 30% of the world's output; the remaining proven reserves of natural gas in Russia and Central Asia accounted for 60% of the world, and output accounted for more than 34% of the world's. 世纪90年代我国成为石油净进口国以来，我国油企“走出去”均以保证我国石油安全为重要驱动，以上游勘探开发合作为重心，中下游合作是为上游合作服务。 Since China became a net oil importer in the 1990s, China ’s oil companies have “going global” driven by ensuring China ’s oil safety, focusing on upstream exploration and development cooperation, and midstream and downstream cooperation serving upstream cooperation. 。 In the cooperation between China and oil and gas resource countries, cooperation projects in the upstream sector account for 70% of the total projects. With the advancement of the "Belt and Road" initiative, oil and gas cooperation is moving towards cooperation in the entire industry chain including refining, pipelines, engineering and technical services, while driving the export of equipment, instruments and materials. Especially under the promotion of the “Belt and Road” initiative, the cooperation is expanding to a deeper level in the fields of scientific and technological research and development, talent exchange and education and training.
(3) Transition from leading demonstration to important pole
Prior to the implementation of the “Belt and Road” initiative, China's cooperation with neighboring resource countries was mainly oil and gas, and oil and gas cooperation had a leading role and a fundamental role in economic and trade cooperation. Since the implementation of the "Belt and Road" strategy, China's economic and trade cooperation with resource countries along the route has been in full swing, and oil and gas cooperation has completed the historical role of advanced demonstration. China's oil and gas companies started investment cooperation in countries along the “Belt and Road” earlier. With the continuous expansion of the scale of oil and gas cooperation and the completion of the channel construction, they have greatly met the strategic requirements of diversified export of landlocked resource countries, greatly It has promoted relations between China and neighboring resource countries, promoted the development of bilateral economic and trade relations, and played a leading and exemplary role. With the full development of the “Belt and Road” cooperation, the pace of “going global” in high-speed rail, electric power, nuclear energy, and communications industries has accelerated. The advance mission of oil and gas cooperation has been completed, and it has become an important part of China ’s major economic and trade cooperation and integration of major industries along the route pole. This change is the historical necessity of development, and the advantages outweigh the disadvantages in oil and gas cooperation. The “Belt and Road” connects the world ’s largest oil and gas resource rich area and the world ’s most potential oil and gas consumer market. The importance of oil and gas cooperation in the cooperation between China and countries along the route will not decline. China ’s capital driven by the “Belt and Road” strategy , Industrial and technological exports, and large-scale economic and trade cooperation, have a more direct effect on enhancing the level of economic development of the cooperating countries and benefiting the people of the host countries, and also help to change the situation in which the resource country's cooperation with our country is only a resource-exporting cooperation, which helps To diversify and defuse the risks brought about by domestic resource nationalism.
(4) From SOEs to state-owned and private enterprises to jointly participate in the transformation
In the early days of the “Belt and Road” initiative, China's participation in international oil and gas cooperation was mainly state-owned enterprises represented by the three major oil companies: PetroChina, Sinopec and CNOOC. At present, state-owned enterprises are still the main force of the “Belt and Road” oil and gas cooperation, and they play a leading role in some strategic oil and gas cooperation. However, the pace of private capital's "going out" has obviously accelerated, and has become an important force for oil and gas cooperation in the "Belt and Road". 年洲际油气以5.25亿美元收购哈萨克斯坦马腾石油95%股权，且于2015年以3.5亿美元收购克山公司100%股份； 2015年华信能源获得俄罗斯东西伯利亚地区贝加尔项目3个油田区块股权，收购哈萨克斯坦国油国际公司欧洲子公司51%权益，并通过定增扩股与设立能源投资开发基金，进一步收购欧洲黑海、地中海区域加油站，拓展下游物流体系及上游资源股权，完善公司海外油气终端布局，推动公司的欧洲终端销售网络和炼化、储备一体化产业体系，与国内市场形成联动互补。 For example: In 2014 , Intercontinental Oil & Gas acquired 95% of Kazakhstan's Maten Petroleum for US $ 525 million, and in 2015 acquired 100% of Keshan Company for US $ 350 million. In 2015, Huaxin Energy won three Baikal projects in East Siberia, Russia. Oilfield block equity, acquired 51% equity of Kazakhstan's Petronas International European subsidiary, and through the expansion of shares and establishment of energy investment and development funds, further acquisition of gas stations in the European Black Sea and Mediterranean regions, expansion of downstream logistics systems and upstream resources equity , Improve the company ’s overseas oil and gas terminal layout, promote the company ’s European terminal sales network and the integrated industrial system of refining and storage, forming a linkage and complementation with the domestic market. At the same time, private enterprises have also taken full advantage of the flexibility of their mechanisms to obtain more cooperation opportunities in overseas oil and gas cooperation. For example, Sirius Group invested in a joint venture with a Russian investor to set up a company in Russia, fully consider the interests of partners, make full use of the influence of partners, and obtain exploration blocks and refinery construction projects in the Russian Far East as Russian local companies, and obtain Quotas for pipeline transportation of crude oil from oil fields to refineries.
(5) Transition from a solo to a multi-national chorus
At the beginning of the “Belt and Road” initiative, many countries along the route were puzzled or even misunderstood the motives of China to propose the initiative. With the continuous advancement of cooperation between China and the countries along the route, the implementation of various plans and projects, and the active use of existing bilateral and multilateral cooperation mechanisms, it has effectively promoted regional and interregional cooperation. 多个国家和国际组织参与到“一带一路”合作中来，我国同30多个沿线国家签署了共建“一带一路”合作协议，同20多个国家开展国际产能合作。 At present, more than 100 countries and international organizations have participated in the “Belt and Road” cooperation. China has signed cooperation agreements with more than 30 countries along the “Belt and Road” to develop international capacity cooperation with more than 20 countries. Specifically, bilateral cooperation was first promoted. 年中，我国已同56个国家和区域合作组织发表了对接“一带一路”倡议的联合声明，建立了双边联合工作机制；已与11个“一带一路”沿线国家签署了自贸区协定。 As of mid- 2016 , China has issued joint statements with 56 countries and regional cooperation organizations on the “Belt and Road” initiative and established a bilateral joint working mechanism; it has signed free trade zone agreements with 11 “Belt and Road” countries . Secondly, multilateral cooperation has been deepened. 东欧16 ＋ 1 、中国东盟10 ＋ 1 、中国-海合会等组织和对接机制的合作，使“一带一路”的合作理念得到相关各方的充分理解，带动了更多国家和地区参与“一带一路”建设。 Focusing on the “Belt and Road” initiative, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, China - Eastern Europe 16 +1, China-ASEAN 10 +1, China - GCC, and other cooperation and docking mechanisms will be strengthened to bring the “Belt and Road” cooperation concept to relevant parties. The full understanding of this has driven more countries and regions to participate in the construction of the “Belt and Road” initiative. At the same time, the docking of the strategy of regional powers with the “Belt and Road” initiative was achieved. The “Belt and Road” initiative has received positive responses from the countries along the route, and has also been echoed by some regional powers. The regional powers have waited and questioned at the beginning of the initiative, accepted them, and then required strategic alignment, laying an important foundation for the integration of interests among regional powers.