爱彼迎、优步(Uber)等共享经济企业成立算起，共享经济已经走过十个年头。 If we start from the establishment of sharing economy companies such as Airbnb and Uber , the sharing economy has gone through ten years. This decade, both globally and in China, the sharing economy has earned enough attention: from a little-known concept, to the rush of capital, to frequent problems and controversy, and even different policy orientations in different countries And regulatory measures have become the focus of government, public, media, researchers and practitioners.
Judging from the development course of the past decade, the performance of China's sharing economy is undoubtedly remarkable. ，新业态新模式犹如一个个火种，以燎原之势快速地渗透到人们生活的方方面面，渗透至经济社会的各个领域，在短短的几年时间里就形成了一场全民参与的发展浪潮，这在经济发展史上并不多见。 The research report of the National Information Center shows that the growth rate of the transaction scale of the sharing economy market has exceeded 40% for three consecutive years. The new business models and new models are like tinders, which have penetrated into all aspects of people's lives quickly, and penetrated into the economic and social In all fields, in just a few years, a wave of development involving the participation of the whole people has formed, which is rare in the history of economic development. It is worth mentioning that, unlike in the past few decades, we have been running and catching up in many fields. In the field of sharing economy, we have the opportunity to compete on the same stage and even become the protagonist on the world economic stage. The "China Sharing Economy Development Report" prepared by the National Development and Reform Commission gives such a judgment: "China has become the main position and demonstration area for the innovation and development of the global sharing economy." In a sense, the global economic landscape is also positive. So reposition a brand new China.
年初这个节点上谈论共享经济，或许更多人想到的，是街头巷尾无序破烂的单车，是乘坐顺风车遭遇不测的年轻空姐，是一个个“爆雷”的网贷平台，甚至是资本的狂热与贪婪。 However, when talking about the sharing economy at this node in early 2019 , perhaps more people think of disorderly and broken bicycles at the end of the streets, young flight attendants encountering unexpected accidents when riding a downwind car, and "exploding" online loan platforms, and even The frenzy and greed of capital. Although these are not the entirety of the sharing economy, it is just like the ride-hailing car is not the entirety of the Internet-sharing car; but they have become the epitome of the sharing economy in the eyes of some people.
A series of problems, especially the occurrence of vicious incidents, have aroused widespread concern of the public opinion and strong public dissatisfaction. The supervision of the sharing economy has become a public policy issue of great concern to all sectors of society. Supervision has become the top priority. The strictness and scope of supervision have never been greater. Administrative, legal, and technical supervision methods are multi-pronged, and standardized development has become a social consensus. In response to the problems exposed in various fields, relevant departments have aggressively and aggressively carried out a series of special rectification actions to further improve policies and regulations, and strengthen the implementation and implementation of policies. "Strong regulation" is undoubtedly a key word that can be used to describe the year of the sharing economy. 年也必将成为共享经济发展和监管历程中具有标志性意义的一年。 2018 will also become a landmark year in the development and supervision of the sharing economy.
Also in this year, the sharing economy was a "pseudo-proposition", a "short-lived", and "cold winter theory" and "death theory" and other negative news, comments and remarks appeared in large numbers, which not only directly affected the public and the market's development of the sharing economy The confidence and trust of the government has also caused some distress to the regulatory authorities. These disputes and doubts are the “worries” that cannot be avoided in the growth of the new business format. Objectively speaking, survival of the fittest is the basic principle of market competition. The above remarks have a blindfold and a generalized irrational phenomenon: the dilemma facing a certain field is equivalent to the overall state of the sharing economy, and the failure of a specific model is regarded as It is the failure of the entire sharing model, and the phased problems encountered in development are regarded as long-term problems.
From the perspective of development prospects, the sharing economy is a combination of technological, institutional, and organizational innovation methods that can significantly reduce the costs of mutual search, bargaining, and security guarantees between supply and demand during the transaction process, and improve the efficiency of resource allocation. Whether it is from the cultivation of new momentum for economic growth, the promotion of industrial transformation and upgrading, or from the perspective of meeting the huge potential demand of consumers, the role of the sharing economy is far from being fully released, and the general trend of accelerated penetration and integration of the sharing economy in various fields will not change.
年3月15日国务院总理李克强在回答澎湃新闻记者提问时所言，共享经济“作为新事物，和任何新事物一样，在发展中总会有利有弊。”“互联网经济、共享经济、平台经济还有很大的发展空间”。 As Premier Li Keqiang said on March 15 , 2019 , when answering questions from surging journalists, the sharing economy "as a new thing, like any new thing, there will always be advantages and disadvantages in development." "Internet economy, sharing economy, There is still much room for development in the platform economy. "
年的政府工作报告中， 8次提到互联网，其中6次的表述是“互联网+” 。 In the 2019 government work report, the Internet was mentioned 8 times, and the expression 6 times was " Internet +" . 互联网+”将全面融入到我国经济结构优化升级、社会事业发展和机制体制创新之中， 全面提升人民生活品质、增进人民福祉。 This means that the Internet and the economy and society will move toward a deeper integration, and " Internet +" will be fully integrated into the optimization and upgrading of China's economic structure, the development of social undertakings, and the innovation of mechanisms and systems, which will comprehensively improve the quality of life and the well-being of people. ”将成为促进新旧动能接续转换的重要驱动力。 In the context of rapid growth to high-quality development, and the economy urgently needs to cultivate and expand new kinetic energy, "Internet + " will become an important driving force for the continuous conversion of new and old kinetic energy. ，运用新技术新模式改造传统产业；打造工业互联网平台，为制造业转型升级赋能；坚持包容审慎监管，支持新业态新模式发展，促进平台经济、共享经济健康成长。 As mentioned in the report, accelerate the promotion of "Internet +" in various industries and fields, and use new technologies and new models to transform traditional industries; create an industrial Internet platform to empower manufacturing transformation and upgrading; adhere to prudent supervision and support new models of new business formats Development, promote the healthy growth of platform economy and sharing economy. These are major policy dividends for the future development of the sharing economy.
The general trend will not change, but the external regulatory environment and the focus of market competition have already changed significantly.
First, regulation and compliance will be the key words in the coming years.
年5月，国家发改委会同有关部门发出《关于做好引导和规范共享经济健康良性发展有关工作的通知》，提出了构建综合治理机制、推进实施分类治理、压实企业主体责任、规范市场准入限制、加强技术手段建设、推动完善信用体系、合理利用公共资源、保障个人信息安全、规范市场竞争秩序、加强正面宣传引导、完善应急处置保障等11个方面的要求。 In May 2018 , the National Development and Reform Commission and relevant departments issued a "Notice on Doing a Good Job in Guiding and Regulating the Healthy Development of the Shared Economy." 11 requirements, including restrictions on entry, strengthening the construction of technical means, promoting the improvement of the credit system, rational use of public resources, ensuring the security of personal information, regulating the order of market competition, strengthening positive publicity and guidance, and improving emergency response guarantees.
年政府工作报告中提出，要“坚持包容审慎监管，支持新业态新模式发展，促进平台经济、共享经济健康成长。 ”这是共享经济连续第5年出现在政府工作报告中。 In the 2019 government work report, it is stated that “ adhere to inclusive and prudent supervision, support the development of new business models and new models, and promote the healthy growth of the platform economy and the sharing economy. ” This is the fifth consecutive year that the sharing economy has appeared in the government work report. 支持新业态新模式发展”的提法，同时又着重突出了“包容审慎监管”和“健康成长” 。 It is not difficult to compare the expressions in previous government work reports. In this year's report, on the one hand, it continued the reference of “ supporting the development of new business models and new models ” , while emphasizing “ inclusive prudential supervision ” and “ healthy growth ” . 月15日克强总理在答记者问时再次强调，对于新业态新模式，要“划出安全的底线，也不允许打着'互联网+' 、共享经济的招牌搞招摇撞骗。” On March 15th , when answering a reporter's question, Prime Minister Keqiang once again emphasized that for the new business model and new model, "the bottom line of safety must be drawn, and the sign of" Internet + " and the sharing economy should not be allowed to fool."
底线思维”是我国在培育壮大经济发展新动能、促进以共享经济为代表的新业态发展时必须坚持的监管原则。 " Bottom-line thinking " is a regulatory principle that China must adhere to while cultivating and expanding new momentum for economic development and promoting the development of new formats represented by the sharing economy. Adhering to the bottom line principle means maximizing market access, encouraging competition, liberating and developing productivity; it also requires targeted innovation models that may violate the legitimate rights and interests of users, trigger systemic risks, and affect cyberspace information security. Strengthen supervision. Bottom-line thinking provides space for innovation and exploration, leaving room for innovation. Above the bottom line, bold exploration and innovation should be encouraged.
年1月1日正式实施， 2018年出现的强监管态势不会放松。 Therefore, from a macro policy perspective, China ’s support attitude towards the new format and mode of the sharing economy has not changed. The sharing economy will continue to play a role in promoting the conversion of new and old kinetic energy and cultivating new economic growth points. At the same time, individual new formats are developing. Existing problems will also receive more attention to avoid "big mistakes" and affect the overall healthy growth of the sharing economy. In addition, the "e-commerce law" was officially implemented on January 1 , 2019 , and a strong regulatory situation in 2018 Won't relax. In the main areas of the sharing economy, compliance management will continue to be strengthened around the qualifications and permits of service providers, service standards, safety and emergency protection.
Second, the focus of market competition will be driven from scale to efficiency.
In the past few years, most companies in the sharing economy field have followed the “scale of scale” and pursued volume expansion, which is reflected not only in the number of users but also in the type and quantity of goods or services used for sharing. The fastest speed is to become the largest one in the market, and enjoy the head effects brought by being an industry leader in order to become a winner. When the pursuit of scale and development speed once surpassed the pursuit of efficiency of the main business itself, and became the core indicator of all considerations, corporate operational risk, social responsibility, moral hazard, etc. also retreated to secondary positions, and problems arose. It is inevitable, sooner or later.
The sharing economy that looks like a "cooler" is really facing the throes of returning to rationality. The era of "scaling the world" has passed. Returning to the most authentic business logic and creating more value for the market and users is the real thing. Kingship.
The way of blindly "burning money" to grab traffic is no longer feasible. Under the situation of increasing downward pressure on the economy, deleveraging of debt reduction and risk prevention, from the government to market investment institutions, more emphasis will be placed on efficiency, returns and risk control. The era of scale-driven has passed, and the era of efficiency-driven and quality-oriented development has arrived.
Based on the observations and reflections on the development of China's sharing economy in the past few years, and the analysis of the development trends and trends of China's main areas of the sharing economy under the new situation, the book "Sharing Economy: Towards Reason and Standards" was formed. Due to the limited personal level and the huge difference in the development of the sharing economy in different areas of the economy and society, the pace of innovation in new technology and new models and new business fields is accelerating. There are inevitably many questions in the book. I hope that the existing insights can trigger more colleagues More discussion and thinking.
The Sharing Economy: Towards Reason and Standards