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Zhang Xinhong: 100 Questions about the Sharing Economy
Source: Ministry of Information and Industry Development Time: 2018-12-27

Foreword

The historic opportunity of the sharing economy should not be missed

享产能,共享经济在过去的10年间风靡全球,席卷各行各业,对政府治理、企业发展、个人生活都产生了深刻影响。 From shared products to shared space, from shared skills to shared labor services, from shared funds to shared capacity, the sharing economy has swept the world over the past 10 years, sweeping all walks of life, and has profound implications for government governance, corporate development, and personal life. influences.

                                                

The sharing economy is the product of the combination of the information technology revolution and the inherent needs of human social development, and is a new business format, new model, and new concept that adapts to the development of the information society. In a certain sense, we ca n’t understand the present of the Chinese economy or the future of the world economy.

For China, the development of the sharing economy has more important special significance. The sharing economy is a historic opportunity provided to China by the information revolution. It has strategic objectives such as implementing new development concepts, fostering new economic growth points, advancing supply-side reforms, building a network power, innovating governance systems, and building new advantages for the country in the information age. Significance.

的政策环境,也使得中国共享经济发展取得了举世瞩目的成就。 Against this background, China has also been working hard to create a more relaxed policy environment for the development of the sharing economy , which has also made China's development of the sharing economy a world-renowned achievement. 10月,党的十九大报告明确提出将共享经济确立为培育新增长点、形成新动能的重点领域。 In October 2017 , the report of the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China clearly stated that the sharing economy should be established as a key area to cultivate new growth points and form new momentum.3月,《政府工作报告》在总结五年来创新发展成果时指出:“高铁网络、电子商务、移动支付、共享经济等引领世界潮流。” 2018420日,习近平总书记在全国网络安全和信息化工作会议上强调,信息化为中华民族带来了千载难逢的机遇。 In March 2018 , the "Government Work Report" summarized the achievements in innovation and development over the past five years: "High-speed rail network, e-commerce, mobile payment, sharing economy, etc. lead the world trend." On April 20 , 2018 , General Secretary Xi Jinping was in the country At the cyber security and informatization work conference, it was emphasized that informatization has brought rare opportunities to the Chinese nation.919日,李克强总理出席第十二届夏季达沃斯论坛开幕式并致辞,在总结中国培育壮大新动能经验和成就时强调,我们实行包容审慎监管,促进了新兴产业蓬勃发展。 "To develop the digital economy, accelerate the promotion of digital industrialization, rely on the innovation of information technology to drive new industries and new business models, and use new kinetic energy to promote new development." On September 19 , 2018 , Premier Li Keqiang attended the 12th Summer At the opening ceremony of the Davos Forum, he made a speech and summed up China's experience and achievements in cultivating and strengthening new kinetic energy, emphasizing that we implement inclusive and prudent supervision and promote the vigorous development of emerging industries. "It is precisely because of this supervision that emerging industries such as online shopping, mobile payment, and the sharing economy are rapidly rising, becoming a significant sign of the vigorous growth of new economic development in China."

Because the sharing economy is developing too fast, too much innovation, and too much influence, it can easily lead to unclear, inaccurate, and intransparent, and it will also cause a lot of confusion for policy research and decision-making choices.

端到风靡全球的时间较短。 The rapid development of the sharing economy is manifested in at least the following aspects: First , the time from the beginning of the sharing economy to the popularity of the world is relatively short. 年全球金融危机算起,共享经济加速发展的历程也就是十来年的时间。 If counting from the global financial crisis in 2008 , the acceleration of the sharing economy will be more than ten years. The second is the rapid expansion of the sharing economy market. 年中国共享经济交易额只有1.9万亿元左右,到2017年就已经扩大到4.9万亿元,参与者人数已经达到7亿人。 Take the development of China's sharing economy as an example. In 2015 , China's sharing economy transaction value was only about 1.9 trillion yuan, and by 2017 it had expanded to 4.9 trillion yuan, and the number of participants had reached 700 million. Third, platform companies are growing fast. 亿人,全年订单数超过74亿单。 In just five years, the Didi Chuxing platform has reached 450 million users, and the number of orders in the whole year has exceeded 7.4 billion. 亿人,单车投放量达2300万辆。 It only took two years to develop 400 million registered users of bicycle sharing, and the number of bicycles was 23 million.

Many innovations in the sharing economy are obvious to all. Judging from the development of China's practice, most of the areas with the most active performances of "mass entrepreneurship and innovation by many people" carry the genes of the sharing economy. 年曾被称作共享单车的元年、知识付费的元年、网络直播的元年。 2016 was called the first year of bike sharing, the first year of knowledge payment, and the first year of webcasting. 年,各类共享经济的新模式、新业态更是如雨后春笋般大量涌现,在产品、空间、知识技能、劳务、资金、生产能力六大领域及其细分领域中,几乎每年都有新的业态诞生,都有大量的共享经济平台上线。 By 2017 , new models and new business models of various types of sharing economy have sprung up in large numbers.In the six major areas of products, space, knowledge and skills, labor services, capital, and production capacity and their subdivisions, almost every year New business formats were born, and a large number of sharing economy platforms were launched. From creative design, marketing planning to catering and accommodation, transportation, from funds, equipment to logistics, labor services, from beauty nails, medical care to knowledge and skills, production capacity, the tentacles of the sharing economy have extended to many areas. The number of sharing platforms has continued to rise, and hundreds of companies have emerged in some fields in just a few years, and a number of representative companies that have begun to take shape, have their own characteristics, and have a certain degree of competitiveness have quickly formed. Most of the sharing economy models emerging abroad can be seen in China, and original sharing economy models belonging to China have also begun to emerge in large numbers.

The impact of the sharing economy has begun to show. Due to the obvious benefits of the sharing economy and the typical bilateral effects of a network, a platform can quickly gather tens or even hundreds of millions of service providers and users, which is incomparable to traditional enterprises. In terms of breadth, shared medical platforms can accumulate hundreds of thousands of outstanding doctors, shared transport platforms can accumulate millions of heavy truck drivers, and shared knowledge and skills platforms can accumulate tens of millions of design teams. Such cases are increasing. It can be said that the sharing economy is affecting everyone, every business, and every government department. From a deep perspective, the impact and impact of the sharing economy on innovation, employment, labor security, urban planning and management, modern governance systems, and economic paradigms has gradually emerged.

Practice is developing too fast, and the theoretical research on the sharing economy is obviously not keeping up. This is one of the important reasons for many questions. In the initial stage, the government, enterprises, and the public did not fully understand the sharing economy. They were basically in a "policy blurry period" in terms of market access, platform governance, and industry supervision, and maintained a high level of new business models. The policy tolerance has created good conditions for the rapid growth of the sharing economy in the initial stage. As the development of the industry enters a period of transformation, problems in the early stages of the development of the industry are gradually exposed, and more and more areas have begun to introduce relevant regulatory policies. For example, in the past two years, relevant departments have issued a series of policies around transportation, live broadcasts, and shared finance. Due to the rapid changes in practice and theory, there is also a large degree of uncertainty in the policy itself. The policy orientations of different industries and regions are different and vary widely.

Regardless of global or Chinese practice, the sharing economy is currently in a stage of accelerated transformation from the initial stage to the growth stage. 即技术、模式、理论等都还处在探索阶段,问题多争议也大。 It is mainly manifested in the following aspects: First, it is immature, that is, the technology, model, theory, etc. are still in the exploratory stage, and many problems are controversial. Even in areas that have developed earlier or faster, such as ride-hailing and bike-sharing, many problems are constantly exposed. 即渗透、参与不足,很多关键领域还没有开始共享。 The second is inadequacy, that is, insufficient penetration and participation, and many key areas have not yet begun to share. Limited to people's cognitive limitations, immature business models, and policy environment to be improved, and other industries, the sharing economy of some industries has just begun, such as shared medical care, shared education, shared agriculture, etc .; some fields are still in their infancy Such as shared pensions, there are currently no representative sharing platforms on the market. It's too early to say that "the sharing economy has arrived in the second half." 即市场格局未定,竞争激烈。 The third is indefiniteness, that is, the market structure is uncertain and competition is fierce. During the transition period, enterprises enter and exit more frequently.

The transition period is also a period when contradictions and problems are most prominent. The sharing economy seems to have been a problem child since its birth. After a period of growth, many problems are now more clearly seen. The problems facing the development of the sharing economy can be roughly divided into four categories: First, supervision cannot keep up. Supervisory departments are not familiar with the new business format, the original system design is no longer applicable, and the means cannot keep up. 如共享单车让大家看到了自行车道、自行车停车位供给不足等问题。 Second, the development of the sharing economy has exposed or highlighted the existing contradictions or problems, such as sharing bicycles to let everyone see the problems of bicycle lanes and insufficient supply of bicycle parking spaces. The development of the sharing economy in most areas has revealed the lag in the construction of the social integrity system, which will lead to problems such as disorderly behavior and moral anomalies, such as various intentional destruction of bicycles, littering, borrowing or not, public property Occupation and other behaviors continue to be the focus of social attention. 网络经济与属地管理的矛盾、新业态对传统利益的冲击、新型垄断、信息安全等。 The third is the new problems brought about by the development of the sharing economy: the contradiction between the network economy and territorial management, the impact of new businesses on traditional interests, new monopolies, and information security. 比如盲目进入引发的倒闭潮,过度追求短期利益,侵害消费者利益,一些企业利用共享经济平台实施违法行为等。 Fourth, there are some problems in the sharing economy itself, such as the tide of closure caused by blind entry, excessive pursuit of short-term benefits, violation of consumer interests, and some enterprises using the sharing economy platform to implement illegal acts. Of course, these issues obviously need to be treated differently.

In the transition period, it becomes increasingly important to look at the problems in the development of the sharing economy. It is normal for some problems to occur in the process of innovation and development. You don't have to be overly nervous, and you can't waste food because of slander. The sharing economy is a new business format. Its emergence is to solve problems we couldn't solve in the past. It solves far more problems than it brings, and its value is much greater. At present, the problems facing the sharing economy are all problems in development, and most problems can be solved in development. The application of new technologies such as big data provides more possibilities for finding problems and solving problems. Pre-event prevention, response during the event, and post-processing can be more accurate, timely, and effective. The problems in the development of the sharing economy should be treated differently. The most important thing is innovation supervision.

年下半年以来对共享经济的反思开始增多。 Since the second half of 2017 , the reflection on the sharing economy has begun to increase. 年共享经济领域出现的一些安全事件引发了更多关于共享经济的讨论、争议,甚至质疑、抵触,有人借机呼吁要对共享经济严格监管,还有人喊出了“共享经济已死”的口号。 Some security incidents in the sharing economy field in 2018 triggered more discussions, disputes, and even questions and conflicts about the sharing economy. Some people took the opportunity to call for strict supervision of the sharing economy, and some people shouted that the "sharing economy is dead" slogan. In fact, the sharing economy has become increasingly prominent in leading innovation and entrepreneurship, promoting economic growth, and fostering new momentum for development.

It should be seen that the sharing economy is by far the best resource utilization method, the inevitable product of the combination of the information revolution and the internal needs of economic and social development, and the general trend of human social development. This trend will not change because of some problems encountered during development. The occurrence of some security incidents has exposed some problems of platform enterprises, and it is also a reflection of social crimes in the sharing economy. We cannot think that the sharing economy is bad because of such problems. It should be seen that the sharing economy is a historic opportunity brought by the information revolution, and every major technological revolution will bring about a restructuring of the world's competitive landscape. Such opportunities must not be missed.

It should be noted that China has unique advantages in developing the sharing economy, and has the conditions to build a new international competitive advantage through the development of the sharing economy. 年,工业革命经历了250年,我们饱尝过落后就要挨打的教训,后来通过改革开放40年的加快追赶才换来制造大国的称号。 By 2018 , the Industrial Revolution has gone through 250 years. We have tasted the lessons of backwardness and must be beaten. Later, through the 40 years of accelerated reform and opening up, we have been awarded the title of great power. 年,互联网快速发展有25年时间,这一次我们抓住了机遇,所以才确立了互联网大国的地位。 By 2018 , there will be 25 years of rapid development of the Internet. This time we seized the opportunity and thus established the status of a major Internet country. 年,共享经济快速发展的历史刚刚10年,中国已经在全球共享经济发展中发挥引领作用。 By 2018 , the rapid development of the sharing economy has just been 10 years, and China has played a leading role in the development of the global sharing economy. The achievement of this achievement is due to our policy environment. Even foreign sharing economy companies believe that China's policy environment is the best. The general trend of the rapid development of the sharing economy has not changed, and the general tone of "encouraging innovation and being prudent" will not change and should not be changed.

Knowing and deciding the choice, the choice of the present determines the future. Policy choices during the transition period are critical to the future development of the sharing economy, and different policy orientations can lead to very different results.

个问题。 This book sorts out and tries to answer the 100 questions that everyone asks and discusses about the development of the sharing economy. 个重点应用领域分别回答了大家关心的问题,第十二章的问题多是涉及共享经济未来发展的。 The first chapter outlines the current status and trends of the development of the sharing economy. The second to sixth chapters focus on the basic theory and practical understanding of the sharing economy. The seventh to eleventh chapters select five key application areas to answer the concerns of everyone. Questions, most of the questions in Chapter 12 are related to the future development of the sharing economy. In order to make it easier for everyone to understand and cause thinking, in addition to the application field, after answering each question, a knowledge point is drawn and a thinking question is attached.

个,未来肯定还会有更多问题被提出。 There are far more than 100 questions about the sharing economy, and more questions will definitely be raised in the future. It may only be practice that can really give the correct answer, but how to recognize and choose will also affect the development and trend of practice. I hope this book can inspire and help everyone.

Zhang Xinhong

1018 October 18 , 2018

 

国家信息中心首席信息师、分享经济研究中心主任,“信息社会50人论坛”理事,“中国信息化百人会”执委兼秘书长。 Zhang Xinhong Chief Information Officer of the National Information Center, Director of the Sharing Economy Research Center, Director of the " 50 Forum for the Information Society", Executive Committee and Secretary-General of the "Hundred Talents of China Information Technology". Mainly engaged in policy research on the theory and practice of information society development, national information development strategy and planning. 余项省部级委托研究及咨询项目,多项研究成果获得国家发改委优秀研究成果奖;参与一系列国家信息化发展相关政策的研究制定工作。 He has presided over and completed more than 50 provincial and ministerial commissioned research and consulting projects, and many research results have won the National Development and Reform Commission's Outstanding Research Achievement Award; he has participated in the research and formulation of a series of national information development related policies. 年开始组织发布年度《中国信息社会发展报告》。 In 2010 , he organized and published the annual "China Information Society Development Report". 年以来致力于分享经济发展研究, 2016年以来组织发布年度《中国共享经济年度发展报告》,已连续发布三年;出版了《分享经济:重构中国经济新生态》《共享经济:中国新故事》等著作,产生了广泛的社会影响。 Since 2015 , he has been committed to the research on the development of the sharing economy. Since 2016 , he has organized and published the annual "China's Sharing Economy Annual Development Report", which has been released for three consecutive years. "Story" and other works have had a wide social impact.