I. Basic data
年我国共享经济交易规模29420亿元，比上年增长41.6% 。 1. The scale of China's sharing economy transactions in 2018 was 294.2 billion yuan, an increase of 41.6% over the previous year. 亿元、 8236亿元和2478亿元。 From the perspective of market structure, the scale of shared economic transactions in the three areas of living services, production capacity, and transportation ranks in the top three, which were 1,584.9 billion yuan, 823.6 billion yuan, and 247.8 billion yuan, respectively. 分别较上年增长97.5% 、 87.3%和70.3% 。 From the perspective of development speed, the three areas of production capacity, shared office and knowledge and skills have grown the fastest , increasing by 97.5% , 87.3% and 70.3% respectively over the previous year.
年我国共享经济参与者人数约7.6亿人，参与提供服务者人数约7500万人，同比增长7.1% 。 2. In 2018 , the number of participants in the sharing economy in China was about 760 million, and the number of participants in service provision was about 75 million, a year-on-year increase of 7.1% . 万人，同比增长7.5% 。 The number of employees on the platform was 5.98 million, a year-on-year increase of 7.5% .
年我国共享经济领域直接融资规模约1490亿元，同比下降23.2% 。 3. In 2018 , the scale of direct financing in China's sharing economy was about 149 billion yuan, a year-on-year decrease of 23.2% . 亿元、 419亿元和203亿元。 The scale of direct financing in the areas of knowledge and skills, transportation, and production capacity is at the forefront, with 46.4 billion yuan, 41.9 billion yuan, and 20.3 billion yuan, respectively.
截至2018年底，全球305家独角兽企业中有中国企业83家，其中具有典型共享经济属性的中国企业34家，占中国独角兽企业总数的41% 。 4. As of the end of 2018 , there were 83 Chinese companies among the 305 unicorn companies worldwide, of which 34 were Chinese companies with typical sharing economic attributes, accounting for 41% of the total number of Chinese unicorn companies. 年我国又有11家共享企业首次进入独角兽行列。 In 2018 , 11 shared companies in China entered the ranks of unicorns for the first time.
年，网约出租车客运量占出租车总客运量的比重从9.5%提高到36.3% ；共享住宿收入占住宿业客房收入的比重从2.3%提高到6.1% ；在线外卖收入占餐饮业收入的比重从1.4%提高到10.6% 。 5. From 2015 to 2018 , the proportion of online taxi passenger traffic to total taxi passenger traffic increased from 9.5% to 36.3% ; shared accommodation revenue increased from 2.3% to 6.1% of hotel room revenue; online takeaway revenue accounted for catering The proportion of industry income increased from 1.4% to 10.6% .
年，共享住宿收入年均增速约为45.7% ，是传统住宿业客房收入的12.7倍；在线外卖收入年均增速约为117.5% ，是传统餐饮业的12.1倍；网约车服务收入年均增速为35.3% ，是巡游出租车服务的2.7倍。 6. From 2015 to 2018 , the average annual growth rate of shared accommodation income is about 45.7% , which is 12.7 times the room revenue of traditional accommodation industry; the average annual growth rate of online takeaway income is about 117.5% , which is 12.1 times that of traditional catering industry. The average annual growth rate of service income is 35.3% , which is 2.7 times that of cruising taxi service.
年，出行、住宿、餐饮等行业的共享新业态对整个行业增长的拉动作用分别为每年1.6 、 2.1和1.6个百分点。 7. From 2015 to 2018 , the new sharing formats of travel, accommodation, catering and other industries contributed to the growth of the entire industry by 1.6 , 2.1 and 1.6 percentage points per year, respectively.
年，网约车用户在网民中的普及率由26.3%提高到43.2% ；在线外卖用户普及率由16.5%提高到45.4% ；共享住宿用户普及率由1.5%提高到9.9% ；共享医疗用户普及率由11.1%提高到19.9% 。 8. From 2015 to 2018 , the popularity rate of ride- hailing users among netizens increased from 26.3% to 43.2% ; the popularity rate of online takeaway users increased from 16.5% to 45.4% ; the share of shared accommodation users increased from 1.5% to 9.9% ; shared The medical user penetration rate increased from 11.1% to 19.9% .
Second, the main conclusions
年我国共享经济依然保持高速增长。 1. China's sharing economy still maintained rapid growth in 2018 . The sharing economy is accelerating its penetration into the manufacturing sector, and capacity sharing is showing an accelerated development trend. After the rapid development of previous years, the development speed of the sharing economy in the field of living services has slowed down.
共享经济成为新型的、弹性就业的一个重要源泉，也成为反映就业形势和经济走势的一个风向标。 2. The sharing economy has become an important source of new and flexible employment, and it has also become a weather vane reflecting the employment situation and economic trends. The sharing economy has not only become an important choice for people to choose their own jobs, but also provides a wide range of employment opportunities for specific groups of society.
以网约车、共享住宿、在线外卖、共享医疗、共享物流等为代表的新业态新模式，成为推动服务业结构优化、快速增长和消费方式转型的新动能。 3. New business models such as online car rental, shared accommodation, online takeaway, shared medical care, shared logistics, etc. have become new driving forces to promote the optimization of the service industry structure, rapid growth, and transformation of consumption patterns.
制造业产能共享成为新的发展亮点。 4. Manufacturing capacity sharing has become a new development highlight. 无工厂”制造模式。 The infrastructure for capacity sharing is becoming more and more perfect. Innovative capacity sharing has become an important direction for the innovative development of large-scale backbone enterprises. Service-oriented capacity sharing has increasingly become a new model of productive services. Intermediate capacity sharing has opened a " factory-less " manufacturing model.
共享经济和人工智能技术的发展互促互动。 5. The development of sharing economy and artificial intelligence technology promote mutual interaction. The development of the sharing economy provides rich scenarios for the innovative application of artificial intelligence technology, and artificial intelligence technology has become an important support for the innovation of the sharing economic model.
共享单车市场短时期内出现的剧烈变化及其带来的各种影响，引发了社会各界对该行业甚至是整个共享经济如潮的争议和质疑。 6. The drastic changes in the bicycle sharing market in the short period of time and the various impacts that they have brought about have led to controversy and questions from all walks of life in the industry and even the entire sharing economy. From the perspective of development prospects, the sharing economy is a combination of technological, institutional, and organizational innovation methods that can significantly reduce the costs of mutual search, bargaining, and security guarantees between supply and demand during the transaction process, and improve the efficiency of resource allocation. Whether it is from the cultivation of new momentum for economic growth, the promotion of industrial transformation and upgrading, or from the perspective of meeting the huge potential demand of consumers, the role of the sharing economy is far from being fully released, and the general trend of accelerated penetration and integration of the sharing economy in various fields will not change.
年是共享经济监管历程中具有标志性意义的一年。 7. 2018 is a landmark year in the supervision of the sharing economy. Relevant departments have adopted a multi-pronged approach and comprehensively used administrative, legal, and technical supervision methods. The strictness and scope of supervision are unprecedented, and standardized development has become a consensus of all parties. The institutional environment for the development of the sharing economy has been further improved. The regulatory framework of standardization, institutionalization, and rule of law has begun to be established. The level of compliance of platform enterprises has significantly improved. Positive progress has been made in the construction of security and emergency management systems that have attracted much attention from the public. Further strengthening, the platform's potential risks have been further controlled and resolved, and people's confidence in the new format of the sharing economy has been further enhanced, laying a solid foundation for the long-term, faster and better development of the sharing economy.
共享经济监管面临新的挑战：长效化监管机制建设任重道远、共享经济企业注册地与经营范围全国性甚至国际化之间的矛盾突出、过于严格的服务准入许可导致大量的共享服务提供者不合法不合规等。 8. The sharing economy supervision faces new challenges: the construction of a long-term supervision mechanism has a long way to go, the contradiction between the registration location of the sharing economy enterprise and the national or even international scope of the business is prominent, and excessively strict service access permits have led to the provision of a large number of shared services. It is illegal and non-compliant. At the same time, how to improve the level of data sharing between the government and platform companies, improve emergency response mechanisms, strengthen platform algorithm supervision, and promote platform companies to actively fulfill their social responsibilities are all important issues that need to be researched and resolved.
未来三年共享经济整体年均增速将在30%以上。 1. The overall average annual growth rate of the sharing economy in the next three years will be more than 30% . Government supervision and corporate compliance have intensified, the behavior of market players has become more rational, and development imbalances in various fields have increased.
2. Capacity sharing combines the two major advantages of large manufacturing countries and Internet giants. By improving resource utilization efficiency, restructuring the supply and demand structure and industrial organization, and empowering small and medium-sized enterprises, it can form superimposed effects, aggregation effects and multiplication effects. As the level of digitalization, networking, and intelligence in the manufacturing industry continues to increase, the role of capacity sharing in stimulating "double innovation", fostering new models, and advancing supply-side structural reforms will become more prominent.
共享经济在就业方面的“蓄水池”和“稳定器”的作用将更加凸显，越来越多的劳动者将根据自己的兴趣、技能、时间和资源，以弹性就业者的身份参与到各种共享经济活动中，成为就业领域的一个重要的新增长点。 3. The role of the "reservoir" and "stabilizer" of the sharing economy in employment will become more prominent, and more and more workers will participate as flexible workers according to their interests, skills, time and resources. Into various sharing economic activities, it has become an important new growth point in the employment field.
共享经济在促消费方面的潜力也将得到充分释放。 4. The potential of the sharing economy in promoting consumption will also be fully released. The sharing economy can not only meet the repressed consumer demand of traditional service models, but also continue to stimulate new consumer demands. With the change of people's consumption ideas and the pursuit of a better life, shared services will accelerate the penetration into the main areas of life and become an important force to promote consumption.
共享经济将成为人工智能领域技术创新的重要场景，在出行、住宿、医疗等领域，人工智能技术将 在身份核验、内容治理、辅助决策、风险防控、服务评价、网络与信息安全监管等方面发挥重要作用， 应用潜力巨大；区块链技术的应用步伐也将加快，为共享经济领域社会信任体系和信用保障体系的建立提供技术支撑。 5. The sharing economy will become an important scenario for technological innovation in the field of artificial intelligence. In the fields of travel, accommodation, and medical treatment, artificial intelligence technology will be used in identity verification, content governance, assisted decision-making, risk prevention and control, service evaluation, network and information security supervision. It plays an important role in other aspects and has huge application potential; the pace of application of blockchain technology will also be accelerated, providing technical support for the establishment of a social trust system and credit guarantee system in the sharing economy field.
随着2018年各项整治行动和监管措施的延续，以及《电子商务法》的正式实施，共享经济领域仍将延续强监管态势。 5. With the continuation of various rectification actions and supervision measures in 2018 , and the formal implementation of the "E-commerce Law", the sharing economy will continue its strong supervision.
共享经济领域标准化体系建设将不断加快，共享办公、众创平台、共享医疗、在线外卖等领域都有望出台行业性服务标准和规范。 6. The construction of the standardization system in the sharing economy will continue to accelerate, and industry-wide service standards and specifications are expected to be introduced in areas such as shared office, crowd-creation platform, shared medical care, and online takeaway.